Состояние проблемы по лихорадке Зика в мире после отмены чрезвычайной ситуации

Т.И. Самойлова (T.I. Samoilova)

Аннотация


Вирус Зика (ВЗ), впервые обнаруженный в 1947 г. в Уганде, не привлекал особого внимания общественного здравоохранения почти 70 лет. Но в конце 2015 г. был занесен в Бразилию с островов Тихого океана и за 1 год быстро распространился по всей Америке, впервые став причиной массового инфекционного заболевания, связанного с увеличением числа случаев микроцефалии и других нарушений центральной нервной системы у новорожденных. Всемирная организация здравоохранения (ВОЗ) объявила инфекцию, вызванную ВЗ, как чрезвычайную, имеющую международное значение для общественного здравоохранения. Учитывая масштабы распространения инфекции, серьезные и долгосрочные ее последствия во время беременности и на пострадавшее население, необходимо быстрое реагирование глобального общественного здравоохранения и научных исследований для ограничения и предотвращения этих последствий путем разработки терапевтических средств, вакцин и улучшенной диагностики. В данном обзоре представлена информация о текущем состоянии проблемы в мире по лихорадке Зика после отмены ВОЗ чрезвычайной ситуации, общей характеристике вируса, основных переносчиках, особенностях вызываемой им инфекции, лабораторной диагностике и прогнозе в отношении инфекции для Республики Беларусь. Zika virus (ZV), first discovered in 1947 in Uganda, has not attracted much public health attention for nearly 70 years. But at the end of 2015 it was introduced into Brazil from the Pacific Islands and spread rapidly throughout Americas. ZV has caused the first such massive infection, associated with increased cases of microcephaly and other central nervous system disorders in newborns. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the situation as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Given the scale of the infection spread, serious and long–term consequences during pregnancy and on the affected population, it is necessary a rapid global public health and research response ZV to control and prevent its impacts through the developing of therapeutics, vaccines and improved diagnostics. This review describes the current status of the ZV problem in the world after the abolition of the WHO emergency, the general virus characteristics, the major vectors, the infection characteristics, laboratory diagnostics and the forecast of the infection for the Republic of Belarus.

Полный текст:

PDF

Литература


European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Factsheet for health professionals: Zika virus infection [Electronic resource] / Stockholm: ECDC, 2016. – Mode of access : https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/zika–virus–infection/facts/factsheet/ – Date of access : 25.08.2017.

Четвертое совещание Комитета по чрезвычайной ситуации в соответствии с Международными медико–санитарными правилами (2005 г.) по вопросам микроцефалии, других неврологических нарушений и вируса Зика: заявление ВОЗ, 2 сентября 2016 г. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/zika–fourth–ec/ru/. – Дата доступа: 06.09.2016.

Пятое совещание Комитета по чрезвычайной ситуации в соответствии с Международными медико–санитарными правилами (2005 г.) по вопросам микроцефалии, других неврологических нарушений и вируса Зика : заявление ВОЗ, 18 ноября 2016 г. [Электронный ресурс] / Всемирная организация здравоохранения. Центр СМИ. 2016. – Режим доступа: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/zika–fifth–ec/ru/. – Дата доступа: 25.08.2017.

Bearcroft, W.G. Zika virus infection experimentally induced in a human volunteer / W.G. Bearcroft // Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. – 1956. – Vol. 50, N 5. – P. 442–448.

Probable non–vector–borne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA / B.D. Foy [et al.] // Emerg. Infect. Dis. – 2011. – Vol. 17, N 5. – P. 880–882.

Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November 2013 to February 2014 / D. Musso [et al.] // Euro Surveill. – 2014. – Vol. 19, N 14. – pii: 20761.

Molecular detection of Zika virus in blood and RNA load determination during the French Polynesian outbreak / D. Musso [et al.] // J. Med. Virol. – 2017. – Vol. 89, N 9. – P. 1505–1510. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24735

Zika virus seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015 / M. Aubry [et al.] // Emerg. Infect. Dis. – 2017. – Vol. 23, N 4. – P. 669–672.

Zika virus in asymptomatic blood donors in Martinique / P. Gallian [et al.] // Blood. – 2017. – Vol. 129, N 2. – P. 263–266.

First Zika–positive donations in the continental United States / S. A. Galel [et al.] // Transfusion. – 2017. – Vol. 57, N 3 (pt. 2). – P. 762–769.

First cases of Zika virus infected US blood donors outside states with areas of active transmission / P. C. Williamson [et al.] // Transfusion. – 2017. – Vol. 57, N 3 (pt. 2). – P. 770–778.

Musso, D. Zika Virus / D. Musso, D. J. Gubler // Clin. Microbiol. Rev. – 2016. – Vol. 29, N 3. – P. 487–524

Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness / E. Moulin [et al.] // New Microbes New Infect. – 2016. – Vol. 11. – P. 6–7.

Dengue, chikungunya and Zika co–infection in a patient from Colombia / W. E. Villamil–Gomez [et al.] // J. Infect. Public Health. – 2016. – Vol. 9, N 5. – P. 684–686.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Zika Virus – What Clinicians Need to Know [Electronic resource] / Atlanta: CDC, 2016. – Mode of access : http://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/calls/2016/callinfo_012616.asp. – Date of access : 25.08.2017.

Mallet, H. Bilan de l'épidemie à virus Zika en Polynesie française, 2013–2014 [Electronic resource] / H. Mallet, A. Vial, D. Musso // BISES – Bulletin d’information sanitaires, épidémiologiques et statistiques. – 2015. – Vol. 13. – Mode of access : http://www.hygiene– publique.gov.pf/IMG/pdf/no13_–_mai_2015_–_zika.pdf. – Date of access : 25.08.2017.

Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain–Barre syndrome – case report, French Polynesia, December 2013 [Electronic resource] / E. Oehler [et al.] // Euro Surveill. – 2014. – Vol. 19, N 9. – pii=20720 p. – Mode of access : http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20720. – Date of access : 25.08.2017.

Guillain–Barré syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case–control study / V.–M. Cao–Lormeau [et al.] // Lancet. – 2016. – Vol. 387. – P. 1531–1539.

Zika virus and birth defects – Reviewing the evidence for causality / S. A. Rasmussen [et al.] // N. Engl. J. Med. – 2016. – Vol. 374, N 20. – P. 1981–1987.

World Health Organization. Zika situation report: Neurological syndrome and congenital anomalies, 5 February 2016 [Electronic resource] / Geneva: WHO, 2016. – Mode of access : http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204348/1/zikasitrep_5Feb2016_eng.pdf?ua=1. – Date of access : 25.08.2017.

Boeuf, P. The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact / P. Boeuf // BMC Med. – 2016. – Vol. 14, N 1. – P. 112. – DOI:10.1186/s12916–016–0660–0

Vertical transmission of Zika virus targeting the radial glial cells affects cortex development of offspring mice / K. Y. Wu [et al.] // Cell Res. – 2016. – Vol. 26, N 6. – P. 645–654.

National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Zika virus vaccine research [Electronic resource] // NIH, 2016 [updated 2017 Jul 21]. – Mode of access : https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases–conditions/zika–vaccines. – Date of access : 25.08.2017.

Первые данные о наличии размножающейся популяции комаров Aedes aegypti L. в районе Большого Сочи и в отдельных городах Абхазии / Ю.В. Юничева, Т.Е. Рябова, Н.Я. Маркович, О.В. Безжонова, Л.А. Ганушкина, В.Б. Семенов, Г.А. Тархов, Л.Е. Василенко, Т.М. Гузеева, Т.В. Шеве- рева, В.П. Сергиев // Медицинская паразитология и паразитарные болезни. – 2008. – № 3. – С. 40– 43.

Suspected female–to–male sexual transmission of Zika virus – New York City, 2016 / A. Davidson [et al.] // MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep. – 2016. – Vol. 65, N 28. – P. 716–717.

Evidence of sexual transmission of Zika virus / E. D'Ortenzio [et al.] // N. Engl. J. Med. – 2016. – Vol. 374, N 22. – P. 2195–2198.

Sexual transmission of Zika virus in an entirely asymptomatic couple returning from a Zika epidemic area, France, April 2016 / T. Freour [et al.] // Euro Surveill. – 2016. – Vol. 21, N 23. – DOI:10.2807/1560–7917.ES.2016.21.23.30254.

Probable transfusion transmitted Zika virus in Brazil / M. L. Barjas–Castro [et al.] // Transfusion. – 2016. – Vol. 56, N 7. – P. 1684–1688.

Evidence for transmission of Zika virus by platelet transfusion / I. J. Motta [et al.] // N. Engl. J. Med. – 2016. – Vol. 375, N 11. – P. 1101–1103.

Petersen, L.R. Zika virus / L. R. Petersen, D. J. Jamieson, M. A. Honein // N. Engl. J. Med. – 2016. – Vol. 375, N 3. – P. 294–295.

Gratz, N. G. Why aircraft disinsection? / N. G. Gratz, R. Steffen, W. Cocksedge // Bull. World Health Organ. – 2000. – Vol. 78, N 8. – P. 995–1004.

International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), IOMC (Inter–Organization Programme for the sound Management of Chemicals). Aircraft disinsection insecticides [Electronic resource] / Geneva: WHO, 2013. – Mode of access : http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/ehc/ehc243.pdf?ua=1. – Date of access : 25.08.2017.

Reiter, P. Yellow fever and dengue: a threat to Europe? / P. Reiter // Euro Surveill. – 2010. – Vol. 15, N 10. – 19509.

Aedes aegypti on Madeira Island (Portugal): genetic variation of a recently introduced dengue vector / G. Seixas [et al.] // Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. – 2013. – Vol. 108, suppl. 1. – P. 3–10.

Обеспечение эпидемиологического надзора и профилактики лихорадки Зика в Российской Федерации / А. Ю. Попова [и др.] // Проблемы особо опасных инфекций. – 2016. – № 2. – С. 5–10.

Introduction and control of three invasive mosquito species in the Netherlands, July–October 2010 / E. Scholte [et al.] // Euro Surveill. – 2010. – Vol. 15, N 45. pii: 19710.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Mosquito maps: Exotic mosquitoes: Surveillance map: Current known distribution as of April 2017 [Electronic resource] / Stockholm: ECDC, 2017. – Mode of access : https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/disease–vectors/surveillance–and– disease–data/mosquito–maps. – Date of access : 25.08.2017.

Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) – 2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus? / G. Grard [et al.] // PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. – 2014. – Vol. 8, N 2. – e2681.

Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore / P. S. Wong [et al.] // PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. – 2013. – Vol. 7, N 8. – e2348.

Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus / T. Chouin–Carneiro [et al.] // PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. – 2016. – Vol. 10, N 3. – e0004543.

Experimental studies of susceptibility of Italian Aedes albopictus to Zika virus / M. Di Luca [et al.] // Euro Surveill. – 2016. – Vol. 21, N 18. DOI: 10.2807/1560–7917.ES.2016.21.18.30223

Dick, G.W.A. Zika virus. Isolations and serological specificity / G.W.A. Dick, S.F. Kitchen, A.J. Haddow // Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. – 1952. – Vol. 46, N 5. – P. 509–520.

Dick, G.W. Epidemiological notes on some viruses isolated in Uganda; Yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Bwamba fever, West Nile, Mengo, Semliki forest, Bunyamwera, Ntaya, Uganda S and Zika viruses / G.W. Dick // Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. – 1953. – Vol. 47, N 1. – P. 13–48.

Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia / M.R. Duffy [et al.] // N. Engl. J. Med. – 2009. – Vol. 360, N 24. – P. 2536–2543.

A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014 / J. Tognarelli [et al.] // Arch. Virol. – 2016. – Vol. 161, N 3. – P. 665–668.

Campos, G.S. Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil / G.S. Campos, A.C. Bandeira, S.I. Sardi // Emerg. Infect. Dis. – 2015. – Vol. 21, N 10. – P. 1885–1886.

WHO. Zika virus and complications: 2016 Public Health Emergency of International Concern [Electronic resource]. – Mode of access: http://www.who.int/emergencies/zika–virus/en/. – Date of access: 25.08.2017.

WHO. Zika situation report, 10 March 2017 [Electronic resource]. – Mode of access: http://www.who.int/emergencies/zika–virus/situation–report/10–march–2017/en/. – Date of access: 25.08.2017.

Current Zika virus transmission – List of countries: ECDC adaptation of WHO's Zika virus country classification scheme [Electronic resource]. – Mode of access : https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications–data/current–zika–virus–transmission–list–countries–ecdc– adaptation–whos–zika–virus. – Date of access: 25.08.2017.

CDC. Zika virus [Electronic resource]. – Mode of access : https://www.cdc.gov/zika/index.html. – Date of access: 25.08.2017.

Об эпидемиологической ситуации, связанной с распространением вируса Зика в мире, 23.05.2017 [Электронный ресурс] / Роспотребнадзор. – Режим доступа: http://rospotrebnadzor.ru/about/info/news/news_details.php?ELEMENT_ID=8310. – Дата доступа: 25.08.2017.

PAHO. WHO. Zika Virus Infection [Electronic resource] / Pan American Health Organization; WHO Regional Office for Americas. – Mode of access: http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11585&Itemid=41688〈= en. – Date of access: 25.08.2017.

Zika virus disease. Interim case definition. 12 Feb. 2016 [Electronic resource] / WHO. – Mode of access: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/zika/case–definition/en/. – Date of access: 25.08.2017.

Тестирование на вирусную инфекцию Зика в лабораторных условиях. Временное руковод- ство ВОЗ [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/zika/laboratory–testing/ru/. – Дата доступа: 25.08.2017.

Prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus. Interim guidance [Electronic resource] / WHO. – Mode of access: http://who.int/csr/resources/publications/zika/sexual–transmission–prevention/en/. – Date of access: 25.08.2017.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Factsheet for health professionals: Zika virus infection. Stockholm, ECDC, 2016. Available at: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/zika–virus– infection/facts/factsheet/ (accessed 25.08.2017).

Fourth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005) regarding microcephaly, other neurological disorders and Zika virus. WHO statement, 2 Sept. 2016. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/zika–fourth–ec/en/ (accessed 06.09.2016).

Fifth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005) regarding microcephaly, other neurological disorders and Zika virus. WHO statement, 18 Nov. 2016. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/zika–fifth–ec/en/ (accessed 06.09.2016).

Bearcroft, W. G. Zika virus infection experimentally induced in a human volunteer. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1956, Vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 442–448.

Foy B.D., Kobylinski K.C., Chilson Foy J.L., Blitvich B.J., Travassos da Rosa A., Haddow A.D., Lanciotti R.S., Tesh R.B. Probable non–vector–borne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2011, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 880–882.

Musso D., Nhan T., Robin E., Roche C., Bierlaire D., Zisou K., Shan Yan A., Cao–Lormeau V.M., Broult J. Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November 2013 to February 2014. Euro Surveill., 2014, vol. 19, no. 14, pii: 20761.

Musso D., Rouault E., Teissier A., Lanteri M.C., Zisou K., Broult J., Grange E., Nhan T.X., Aubry M. Molecular detection of Zika virus in blood and RNA load determination during the French Polynesian outbreak. J. Med. Virol., 2017, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 1505–1510. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24735

Aubry M., Teissier A., Huart M., Merceron S., Vanhomwegen J., Roche C., Vial A.L., Teururai S., Sicard S., Paulous S., Desprès P., Manuguerra J.C., Mallet H.P., Musso D., Deparis X., Cao–Lormeau V.M. Zika virus seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2017, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 669–672. DOI: 10.3201/eid2304.161549

Gallian P., Cabié A., Richard P., Paturel L., Charrel R.N., Pastorino B., Leparc–Goffart I., Tiberghien P., de Lamballerie X. Zika virus in asymptomatic blood donors in Martinique. Blood, 2017, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 263–266. DOI: 10.1182/blood–2016–09–737981

Galel S.A., Williamson P.C., Busch M.P., Stanek D., Bakkour S., Stone M., Lu K., Jones S., Rossmann S.N., Pate L.L. First Zika–positive donations in the continental United States. Transfusion, 2017, vol. 57, no. 3, pt. 2, pp. 762–769. DOI: 10.1111/trf.14029

Williamson P.C., Linnen J.M., Kessler D.A., Shaz B.H., Kamel H., Vassallo R.R., Winkelman V., Gao K., Ziermann R., Menezes J., Thomas S., Holmberg J.A., Bakkour S., Stone M., Lu K., Simmons G., Busch M.P. First cases of Zika virus infected US blood donors outside states with areas of active transmission. Transfusion, 2017, vol. 57, no. 3, pt. 2, pp. 770–778. DOI: 10.1111/trf.14041

Musso D., Gubler D.J. Zika Virus. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 2016, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 487–524.

Moulin E., Selby K., Cherpillod P., Kaiser L., Boillat–Blanco N. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness. New Microbes New Infect., 2016, vol. 11, pp. 6–7. DOI: 10.1016/j.nmni.2016.02.003

Villamil–Gómez W.E., González–Camargo O., Rodriguez–Ayubi J., Zapata–Serpa D., Rodriguez– Morales A.J. Dengue, chikungunya and Zika co–infection in a patient from Colombia. J. Infect. Public Health, 2016, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 684–686. DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2015.12.002

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Zika Virus – What Clinicians Need to Know. Atlanta, CDC, 2016. Available at: http://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/calls/2016/callinfo_012616.asp (accessed 25.08.2017).

Mallet H., Vial A., Musso D. Bilan de l'épidemie à virus Zika en Polynesie française, 2013–2014. BISES – Bulletin d’information sanitaires, épidémiologiques et statistiques, 2015, vol. 13. Available at : http://www.hygiene–publique.gov.pf/IMG/pdf/no13_–_mai_2015_–_zika.pdf (accessed 25.08.20170). (In French).

Oehler E., Watrin L., Larre P., Leparc–Goffart I., Lastere S., Valour F., Baudouin L., Mallet H., Musso D., Ghawche F. Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain–Barre syndrome – case report, French Polynesia, December 2013. Euro Surveill., 2014, vol. 19, no. 9. – pii 20720.

Cao–Lormeau V.M., Blake A., Mons S., Lastere S., Roche C., Vanhomwegen J., Dub T., Baudouin L., Teissier A., Larre P., Vial A.L., Decam C., Choumet V., Halstead S., Willison H.J., Musset L., Manuguerra J.C., Despres P., Fournier E., Mallet H.P., Musso D., Fontanet A., Neil J., Ghawché F. Guillain–Barré syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case– control study. Lancet, 2016, vol. 387, pp. 1531–1539. DOI: 10.1016/S0140–6736(16)00562–6

Rasmussen S.A., Jamieson D.J., Honein M.A., Petersen L.R. Zika virus and birth defects – Reviewing the evidence for causality. N. Engl. J. Med., 2016, vol. 374, no 20, pp. 1981–1987. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsr1604338

World Health Organization. Zika situation report: Neurological syndrome and congenital anomalies, 5 February 2016. Geneva, WHO, 2016. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204348/1/zikasitrep_5Feb2016_eng.pdf?ua=1 (accessed 25.08.2017).

Boeuf P. The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact. BMC Med., 2016, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 112. – DOI:10.1186/s12916–016–0660–0

Wu K.Y., Zuo G.L., Li X.F., Ye Q., Deng Y.Q., Huang X.Y., Cao W.C., Qin C.F., Luo Z.G. Vertical transmission of Zika virus targeting the radial glial cells affects cortex development of offspring mice. Cell Res., 2016, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 645–654. DOI: 10.1038/cr.2016.58

National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Zika virus vaccine research. NIH, 2016 [updated 2017 Jul 21]. Available at: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases– conditions/zika–vaccines (accessed 25.08.2017).

Yunicheva Yu.V., Ryabova T.Ye., Markovich N.Ya., Bezzhonova O.V., Ganushkina L.A., Semenov V.B., Tarkhov G.A., Vasilenko L.Ye., Guzyeva T.M., Shevereva T.V., Sergiev V.P. Pervye dannye o nalichii razmnozhajushhejsja populjacii komarov Aedes aegypti L. v rajone Bol'shogo Sochi i v otdel'nyh gorodah Abhazii [First evidence for breeding Aedes aegypti L. in the area of Greater Sochi and in some towns of Abkhasia]. Medicinskaja parazitologija i parazitarnye bolezni, 2008, no. 3, pp. 40–43 (In Russian)

Davidson A., Slavinski S., Komoto K., Rakeman J., Weiss D. Suspected female–to–male sexual transmission of Zika virus – New York City, 2016. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 2016, vol. 65, no 28, pp. 716–717. DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6528e2

D'Ortenzio E., Matheron S., Yazdanpanah Y., de Lamballerie X., Hubert B., Piorkowski G., Maquart M., Descamps D., Damond F., Leparc–Goffart I. Evidence of sexual transmission of Zika virus. N. Engl. J. Med., 2016, vol. 374, no. 22, pp. 2195–2198. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1604449

Fréour T., Mirallié S., Hubert B., Splingart C., Barrière P., Maquart M., Leparc–Goffart I. Sexual transmission of Zika virus in an entirely asymptomatic couple returning from a Zika epidemic area, France, April 2016. Euro Surveill., 2016, vol. 21, no. 23. DOI: 10.2807/1560–7917.ES.2016.21.23.30254

Barjas–Castro M.L., Angerami R.N., Cunha M.S., Suzuki A., Nogueira J.S., Rocco I.M., Maeda A.Y., Vasami F.G., Katz G., Boin I.F., Stucchi R.S., Resende M.R., Esposito D.L., de Souza R.P., da Fonseca B.A., Addas–Carvalho M. Probable transfusion transmitted Zika virus in Brazil. 2016, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 1684–1688. DOI: 10.1111/trf.13681

Motta I.J., Spencer B.R., Cordeiro da Silva S.G., Arruda M.B., Dobbin J.A., Gonzaga Y.B., Arcuri I.P., Tavares R.C., Atta E.H., Fernandes R.F., Costa D.A., Ribeiro L.J., Limonte F., Higa L.M., Voloch C.M., Brindeiro R.M., Tanuri A., Ferreira O.C.Jr. Evidence for transmission of Zika virus by platelet transfusion. N. Engl. J. Med., 2016, vol. 375, no. 11, pp. 1101–1103. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1607262

Petersen L.R., Jamieson D.J., Honein M.A. Zika virus. N. Engl. J. Med., 2016, vol. 375, no. 3, pp. 294–295.

Gratz N.G., Steffen R., Cocksedge W. Why aircraft disinsection? Bull. World Health Organ., 2000, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 995–1004.

International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), IOMC (Inter–Organization Programme for the sound Management of Chemicals). Aircraft disinsection insecticides. Geneva, WHO, 2013. Available at: http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/ehc/ehc243.pdf?ua=1 (accessed 25.08.2017). 33. Reiter P. Yellow fever and dengue: a threat to Europe? Euro Surveill., 2010, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 19509.

Seixas G., Salgueiro P., Silva A.C., Campos M., Spenassatto C., Reyes–Lugo M., Novo M.T., Ribolla P.E., Silva Pinto J.P., Sousa C.A. Aedes aegypti on Madeira Island (Portugal): genetic variation of a recently introduced dengue vector. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz., 2013, vol. 108, suppl. 1, pp. 3–10. DOI: 10.1590/0074–0276130386.

Popova A.Y., Ezhlova E.B., Demina Y.V., Kulichenko A.N., Dubyansky V.M., Maletskaya O.V., Shaposhnikova L.I., Tokhov Y.M., Toporkov A.V., Viktorov D.V., Smelyansky V.P., Zhukov K.V., Shpak I.M., Boroday N.V. Obespechenie jepidemiologicheskogo nadzora i profilaktiki lihoradki Zika v Rossijskoj Federacii [Provision of epidemiological surveillance and prophylaxis of Zika fever in the Russian Federation]. Problems of Particularly Dangerous Infections, 2016, no. 2, pp. 5–10. DOI:10.21055/0370–1069–2016–2–88–90 (In Russian)

Scholte E., Den Hartog W., Dik M., Schoelitsz B., Brooks M., Schaffner F., Foussadier R., Braks M., Beeuwkes J. Introduction and control of three invasive mosquito species in the Netherlands, July– October 2010. Euro Surveill., 2010, vol. 15, no. 45, pii: 19710.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Mosquito maps: Exotic mosquitoes: Surveillance map: Current known distribution as of April 2017. Stockholm, ECDC, 2017. Available at: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/disease–vectors/surveillance–and–disease–data/mosquito–maps (accessed 25.08.2017).

Grard G., Caron M., Mombo I.M., Nkoghe D., Mboui Ondo S., Jiolle D., Fontenille D., Paupy C., Leroy E.M. Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) – 2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus? PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 2014, vol. 8, no 2, e2681. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002681

Scholte E., Den Hartog W., Dik M., Schoelitsz B., Brooks M., Schaffner F., Foussadier R., Braks M., Beeuwkes J. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 2013, vol. 7, no. 8, e2348. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002348

Chouin–Carneiro T., Vega–Rua A., Vazeille M., Yebakima A., Girod R., Goindin D., Dupont– Rouzeyrol M., Lourenço–de–Oliveira R., Failloux A.B. Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 2016, vol. 10, no. 3, e0004543. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004543

Di Luca M., Severini F., Toma L., Boccolini D., Romi R., Remoli M.E., Sabbatucci M., Rizzo C., Venturi G., Rezza G., Fortuna C. Experimental studies of susceptibility of Italian Aedes albopictus to Zika virus. Euro Surveill., 2016, vol. 21, no. 18. DOI: 10.2807/1560–7917.ES.2016.21.18.30223

Dick G.W.A., Kitchen S.F., Haddow A.J. Zika virus. Isolations and serological specificity. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1952, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 509–520.

Dick G.W. Epidemiological notes on some viruses isolated in Uganda; Yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Bwamba fever, West Nile, Mengo, Semliki forest, Bunyamwera, Ntaya, Uganda S and Zika viruses. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.,1953, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 13–48.

Duffy M.R., Chen T.H., Hancock W.T., Powers A.M., Kool J.L., Lanciotti R.S., Pretrick M., Marfel M., Holzbauer S., Dubray C., Guillaumot L., Griggs A., Bel M., Lambert A.J., Laven J., Kosoy O., Panella A., Biggerstaff B.J., Fischer M., Hayes E.B. Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia. N. Engl. J. Med., 2009, vol. 360, no. 24, pp. 2536–2543. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0805715

Tognarelli J., Ulloa S., Villagra E., Lagos J., Aguayo C., Fasce R., Parra B., Mora J., Becerra N., Lagos N., Vera L., Olivares B., Vilches M., Fernández J. A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014. Arch. Virol., 2016, vol. 161, no. 3, pp. 665–668. DOI: 10.1007/s00705–015– 2695–5

Campos G.S., Bandeira A.C., Sardi S.I. Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2015, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1885–1886.

WHO. Zika virus and complications: 2016 Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Available at: http://www.who.int/emergencies/zika–virus/en/ (accessed 25.08.2017). 48. WHO. Zika situation report, 10 March 2017. Available at: http://www.who.int/emergencies/zika– virus/situation–report/10–march–2017/en/ (accessed 25.08.2017).

Current Zika virus transmission – List of countries: ECDC adaptation of WHO's Zika virus country classification scheme. Available at: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications–data/current–zika– virus–transmission–list–countries–ecdc–adaptation–whos–zika–virus (accessed 25.08.2017).

CDC. Zika virus. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/zika/index.html (accessed 25.08.2017).

Ob jepidemiologicheskoj situacii, svjazannoj s rasprostraneniem virusa Zika v mire, 23.05.2017. Rospotrebnadzor [On the epidemiological situation associated with the spread of the Zik virus in the world, 23.05.2017. Rospotrebnadzor]. (In Russian). Available at: http://rospotrebnadzor.ru/about/info/news/news_details.php?ELEMENT_ID=8310 (accessed 25.08.2017).

PAHO .WHO. Zika Virus Infection. Pan American Health Organization; WHO Regional Office for Americas. Available at: http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11585&Itemid=41688〈= en (accessed 25.08.2017). 53. Zika virus disease. Interim case definition. 12 Feb. 2016. WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/zika/case–definition/en/ (accessed 25.08.2017).

Laboratory testing for Zika virus infection. Interim guidance. WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/zika/laboratory–testing/en/ (accessed 25.08.2017). 55. Prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus. Interim guidance. WHO. Available at: http://who.int/csr/resources/publications/zika/sexual–transmission–prevention/en/ (accessed 25.08.2017).